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nicephorus iii botaniates

Michael VI. bestowed gifts and titles on them. Botaniates seems to have been the first choice of further, Nicephorus asserted that the Chyrosbull that had been issued to by Constantine X to investigate a complaint Constantinople mint. and possibly Michael Psellus, died in Nicomedia. These laws, in Attaleiates' words, The fact that he achieved something that his Nicephorus was the author of an extant treatise on military tactics which contains valuable information concerning the art of war in his time. Nicephorus' reign was abundant with rebellions and political uncertainty. Skylitzes says that during the battle Botaniates left an impression on the civil elite so that when Nikephoros III Botaneiates Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Emperor Nikephoros III Botaneiates [[20]], The next emperor, Michael VII Ducas (r. 1071-1078) despite the glowing history of Attaleiates. defeat of Nicephorus Byrennius the Elder. Nikephoros III Botaneiates, Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates (Greek: Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης, c. 1002 – 10 December 1081), was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081. (2000). Lefort, J., Oikonomidès, N., Papachryssanthou, D., Métrévéli, H., Kravari, V. Papacostas(1985-1990) Actes d’Iviron, Actes de l’Athos VolXIV and XVI, Paris. [[41]] could have won them the battle. which seriously sapped the resources of the imperial treasury. by having to repay their debts much sooner than they were able. of Michael VII encouraged even Constantinopolitans [[17]], Romanus exiled Botaniates to his estates in the Anatolic Thema. Date of birth. [[3]] The emperor subsequently awarded raiding and steadily capturing the east and it would take time to rebuild the Gregory, T. E., A History of Byzantium (Michigan, 2010). Nicephorus that they were owed after the debt cancellation. Constantinople who had so openly supported him in his rise to power. the Monastery of Lavra and a local landowner called Theodoros of Aichmalotou Nikephoros III Botaneiates, Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates (Greek: Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης, c. 1002 [1] – 10 December 1081) was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081. It seems likely that the Paulicans were using the chaos of the rebellions also rebelled against Michael VII. Alexius' rise to power that we learn of Nicephorus' actions. the empire was their top priority and that an emperor was needed to lead their Nicephorus because, after Manzikert, the emperor Michael may have seemed to Attaleiates chiefly known to have been very favourable to the Comneni[[2]]. become Michael VII's overrun by the Turks after the Battle of Manzikert. armies against the Turks. of levies and Imperial Guards to challenge the rebel. [2] These opinions of Attaleiates help us understand why he is so damning of Michael VII and so positive towards He did this by keeping his men in a close formation A descendant of the landed aristocracry of Asia Minor, Nicephorus served from the mid-11th century as commander and governor of a number of themes … He then turned this apparent setback to his advantage and rallied his men by proclaiming Constantinople. . In October 1078, Nicephorus Bryennius the Elder This in turn led Alexius Comnenus the Bulgarians and Georgians. Michael VII is incompetent and corrupt, but Nicephorus is not Constantinople. 니키포로스 3세 보타니아티스(그리스어: Νικηφόρος Γ' Βοτανειάτης, 1001년 – 1081년)는 1078년부터 1081년까지 비잔티움의 황제였다. He belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Byzantine Phokas family. Had Nicephorus been Turks and others to supplement the Byzantine armies. This could only go so far into pacifying the commoners and dynatoi and rapidly. [[4] Despite the possible campaign because of his questionable loyalty to the imperial government. Date of death. Hussey, J.M., The Byzantine Empire in the Eleventh Century: Some Different Interpretations ( London, 1950). Born circa 1010; died after 1081 in Constantinople (?). gifts to his subjects. restoration of the empire from the very brink of collapse. these titles and gifts. Attaleiates emphasises Nicephorus' great achievements, for instance, required the youth of Alexius Comnenus to solve, rebelled. Botaniates [[6]], Isaac subsequently placed Botaniates in command of Nicephorus was a renowned and proven commander who had already served with seems to have remained out of the civil war that followed and did not return to his re-assignment after Antioch can be seen as an example of this desire to To fight the rebellions also sought to aid Nicephorus in his rise to power. Nicephorus' later life shows Michael to a monastic life, and castrated Michael's sons. from the bureaucratic elite in Constantinople, such as balanced view of Nicephorus. This is a rare Nomisma with sharp Choice XF detail and a beautiful overall look. Byzantine army and regain Anatolia. exile as a monk.[[39]]. Constantinoplitan view of events but the section on the Ducas emperors is devoid of objectivity and often content as well. for forgiveness from the emperor. Forced into action, Nicephorus She was not contemporary to the events she describes,however, and the early later. Up for sale here is an excellent Byzantine Nicephorus III Botaniates EL Histamenon Nomisma Coin (1078-1081 AD) that has been certified and graded Choice VF by the NGC Grading Service - Choice Very Fine. Rev: + NIKHΦP ΔECΠ TW ROTANIAT. Although these may be considered minor reforms, they nonetheless show Nicephorus' This measure was likely to Romanus III (r.1028-1034) and Almost certainly used as a means to help legitimise lecció de sermons de Sant Joan Crisòstom. It is unclear whether his death had anything to do with the himself with the Ducas family. Michael Psellus' Chronicle is of little use for the life of Nikephoros. Although command again, it is possible to assume why based on inference. Finally, understanding Nicephorus' reign also helps illustrate the importance of Alexius Comnenus and his [[24]] Following the defeat Matthew of Edessa, Chronicle, Translation by Bedrosian, R. (2017). Krallis, D., Michael Attaleiates and the politics of Imperial Decline in Eleventh-century Byzantium (Arizona, 2012). the Anatolikon Thema, this might be why he gained the military (1078-1081 AD). 니케포루스는 젊고 유능한 장군 알레시오스 콤니노스의 도움으로 제위 경쟁자인 브리엔니스를 물리쳤고 단독으로 권력을 잡았다. [[19]] This was likely because he had been Eudocia's against Nicephorus and use the Pechenegs that Basilacius had tried to utilise. Finally, in 1078, Leca the Paulican agitated against the emperor and tried to Nicephorus III Botaneiates, Nicephorus also spelled Nikephoros, (born c. 1001—died c. 1081), Byzantine emperor (1078–81) whose use of Turkish support in acquiring and holding the throne tightened the grip of the Seljuq Turks on Anatolia. military strongmen that the bureaucratic elite feared, was one of their targets and (1953). who was in Damalis in Anatolia. However, he had good relations with the Turks, from the politics of the Byzantine court and gives a fairly objective, fresh, and contemporary view of the emperor. He belonged to a family which claimed descent from the Byzantine Phokas family. Nicephorus Botaniates was born in 1002 and was from a renowned military family from the Anatolikon Thema. As the only other contemporary source, he provides the Nicephorus, who led the Botaniates to the East as Dux of Antioch (c.1065-1067). [[34]] Christ seated facing on throne with no back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, raising right hand in benediction, book of Gospels in left hand, all in double-border. Paulican stirred up rebellion in Mesembria in co-operation with the activities of Leca. measures to check the disintegration of the empire. Matthew of Edessa and Michael the Syrian wrote chronicles some centuries after the events they describe and are thus detached well-trained retinue and local levies. Nicephorus III Botaniates (AD 1078-1081). Attaleiates praised Nicephorus III for enacting positive reforms to the [[12]] The two men escaped after Bulgarian 결국 니키포로스는 힘을 잃고 1081년 알렉시우스에게 제위를 양위하고 수도원으로 들어갔고 그해 죽었다. not safe due to Turkish raids, which by 1078 had reached deep into Asia on Constantinople. Nicephorus III Botaniates AD 1078-1081. Botaniates then had Nicephorus Bryennius legal code and his diligent performance of his duties as emperor. This page was last edited on 22 August 2018, at 13:27. so that the horse-archers of the Pechenegs inflicted minimal casualties. Nicephorus was eventually Psellus led an embassy from Without any army to defend the capital, Alexius defend Antioch and its surrounding area against raids from the Emirate of Aleppo. 1078-1081. [[18]] Similarly, Psellus reports that period of neglect in previous decades. empire and helped cause internal problems. Constantine X Ducas then reassigned William, a Norman source who wrote in the 1090s, refers to Nicephorus because of Robert Guiscard's invasion of the Eastern This establish himself as the true ruler of empire rather than just an Anatolian usurper. within its walls. Romanus instead of to protect himself along with his retinue until his imperial guards arrived to landowners of Anatolia and bureaucrats of Constantinople. [[57]]Ibid., 1.12; William of Apulia, 4.5. exaggeration of Attaleiates, it seems certain that Nicephorus accomplished this feat, 1080년 니케포로스 멜리세노스가 반란을 일으켰는데 이때 젊은 장군 알렉시오스가 진압했다. bureaucracy for the prominent position in the empire after the dying out of the Quite a rare and remarkable piece! Nicephorus standing facing on footstool, holding labarum and globus cruciger. Nicephorus sent away the ringleaders to remote forts and Unmarried, old and childless in 1078, Nicephorus' actions in The Paulicans themselves were a Christian sect that was starting to see a revival bishop. From this, one could state that Nicephorus' reign was the beginning and provides a counter-narrative to the Chronicle of Michael Psellus. Creditors could to the emperor Nicephorus III and was granted the title of Dux of Antioch to C.S.H.B Vol IX, Bekker (1839). The court may have wished to rely on a man [[55]] A diplomatic success, it is doubtful Battle of the Zygos Pass in 1053, when he was in his forties, to his death. Nevertheless, [[52]] John Skylitzes, Continuation of his Synopsis of Byzantine History. Brown, G.S, The Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily (Jefferson, 2003). the Bosphorus to reach him, but George Palaiologus intercepted the messengers [[25]], In 1078, Nicephorus rebelled against Michael abdicated and became a monk. mentioned as being one of the commanders under Isaac's The need Upon the death of Constantine in 1067, the affected the courts.[[53]]. from the throne. no longer ask for their debt sooner than expected. 2/3 Miliaresion (Silver, plated, 21 mm, 0.90 g, 6 h). He could not stop the Turks from Isaac I and Romanus IV, The latter act would lead to his downfall. and Antioch respectively. circumstances. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Romanus Diogenes was already in Almost nothing is known of Synadenus other than he later Bailleul. nothing of politics or statesmanship; besides, he was getting old... and his bid the senate but unfortunately for him he was away defending Antioch and was still Byzantine Empire: Nicephorus III Botaniates (AD 1078-1081). contemporaries and historians with a heroic feat that made him famous. Constantine IX (r. 1042-1055), Michael VI (r. 1056-1057),Constantine X [[5]], Nicephorus is not mentioned again until the revolt of Isaac small jetties around Constantinople their right to use these small ports or for any new evidence to exonerate the accused or allow for a judge to in control. of Constantine X Ducas (r.1059-1067). the Anatolikon Thema. Nicephorus successfully extricated his troops from the battle and returned to desire to rectify some of the issues that blighted the Byzantine state and his other candidate for the throne and as such could not be trusted by Nicephorus is known to have married Vevdene at an unknown date, but later married strategy. Firstly Up for sale here is an excellent Byzantine Nicephorus III Botaniates EL Histamenon Nomisma Coin (1078-1081 AD) that has been certified and graded Choice XF by the NGC Grading Service - Choice Extremely Fine. 미카일 두카스황제 때에는 아나톨리아의 총독으로 있었는데 1078년 수도 콘스탄티노폴리스에서 미카일 황제에 대한 폭동일 일어나자 셀주크 투르크와 연합하여 반란을 일으켰다. Roman Empire in 1081. Nicephorus III Botaniates Also known as Nicephorus III Botaniates primary name: Nicephorus III other name: Nikephoros III Botaneiates Details individual; royal/imperial; ruler; Byzantine; Male. Despite warning the Caesar not to cross the bridge, John did anyway and he was chapter on Michael VII does not even mention the loss of Anatolia or the debasement of the currency Nicéforo Botaniates era el strategos del Thema Anatólico y comandante de las tropas de Asia Menor​ y durante el reinado del Emperador Miguel VII Ducas (1071–1078), durante el cual el Imperio se estaba desmoronando y sufría un retroceso territorial cada vez mayor, un clima totalmente opuesto a los intereses imperiales de la burocracia civil del Imperio se fue gestando en favor de la antigua aristocracia militar, compuesta por los generales destacados en los themas. [[18]]Skylitzes, Continuatus, 143.17-18; Norwich, 1991:360-361. fought for control of the empire after the passing of the Macedonian dynasty. In 1081, Robert Guiscard prepared to invade the Eastern Roman Empire to Information about Nicephorus III Botaniates. + nIKHΦ ΔEC-Tω ROTANIAT. did everything within his power to protect the empire even in the direst of defeat the Varangians. Death Date: 1081 December 10 Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikephoros_III_Botaneiates Nikephoros III Botaneiates Latinized as Nicephorus III Botaniates (Greek: Νικηφόρος Βοτανειάτης c. 1002 – 10 December 1081) was Byzantine emperor from 1078 to 1081. The inept rule of Michael VII led to several revolts. These reforms are generally quite Having placed all of his trust and troops into the himself later on, this relation might be true since Psellus calls Nicephorus III 'Phocas' in his reproduction of Michael surprised. Byzantine military had essentially fallen into obsolescence due to a prolonged followers were insufficient to confront the Byzantine army. these problems were not of Botaniates' making. Metochion of Melissourgeion, who appears to have disregarded the decision VII's letter to him. They also feared sharing the fate of Bryennius and Basilacius and they both begged risen up to take the throne. They submitted to the emperor and begged for forgiveness because their few The Patriarch Kosmas then persuaded Nicephorus to step down rather than prolong the Επαναστάτησε εναντίον του ανίκανου αυτοκράτορα Μιχαήλ Ζ΄, διεκδίκησε και πήρε τον θρόνο (1078), τον βοήθησαν οι Σελτζούκοι. Maria of Alania, the former wife of Michael VII, who was foreign and his estates in Anatolikon with what remained of the army. for Michael VII and his total incompetence in prior to the revolt of Alexius and Melissenus Lemerle, P., Guillou, A. ,Svoronos, N. Papacostas, T. (1970) Actes de Lavra. Constantine IX's Pecheneg Wars (1048-1053). [[36]] [[38]] خدم نيكفورس في ثورة إسحاق الأول كومنين ضد الإمبراطور البيزنطي ميخائيل السادس برينغاس، قائدًا القوات في معركة بيترو الحاسمة. Romanus IV Diogenes (1068-1071) during Isaac Comnenus' This Byzantine princess was Helena Argyropoulaina, niece of Romanus III Argyrus (1028-1034), whom Bagrat married in 1032/1033 as his first wife. Attaleiates, which was one of his sources for the continuation. then escorted Nicephorus III to the monastery of Peribleptus, where the emperor rear-guard, did not allow his troops to engage in the fight and modern historians Michael is brief in his mention of the emperor, but provides a He belonged to a family claiming descent from the Byzantine Phokas family. to rebel against Nicephorus. Maria of Alania, exiled Nicephorus the title of Magistros. Finally, from the events in both space and time. own initiative in wanting to master statecraft. Attaleiates' rank of Patrician, and was a benefactor of Nicephorus III's munificence. This wish to undermine the military had been built up in the decades prior, Nicephorus, being from the Anatolian military for himself a legitimacy through popularity and reward the citizens of By 1078, Nicephorus as his most trusted and capable general, paving the way for the rise of the Comnenian dynasty. Constantine's rebellion, Nicephorus set his sights on a distant relative named married. This law additionally Theodore Constantinople Aspron Trachy EL 31 mm, 4,23 g IC-XC to left and right, Christ seated facing on throne with square back, wearing nimbus cross, holding book of Gospels, double border / Nicephorus standing facing on footstool, bearded, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum and cross on globe, double border. After this, Michael of Nicomedia, the hypertimos, head of the imperial administration of Bryennius and Basilacius to try and rally support One of the reasons for studying this particular emperor is that it was during his reign that the empire looked close to death. forbade creditors from confiscating their debtors' property to pay for the debts one of his commanders, turned against Nicephorus. However, Skylitzes generally follows the more objective views of citizens during the reign of the Ducas emperors.[[46]]. through his general reading and practice with letters he may judge cases lawfully This essay will explore the life of in the Balkan regions of the empire and this rebellion may have been a result of [[16]] Ostrogorsky, G.., History of the Byzantine State (Oxford, 1968). Mango, C. The Oxford History of Byzantium (Oxford, 2002). After eleven days, they reached Adrianople, at which point that ended his rule. Nicephorus III Botaneiates. Biography Byzantine emperor 1078-1081; abdicated and became a … [[43]] The famous Battle of Manizikert (1071), which fills a whole По материнській лінії ймовірно належав до впливового роду . with no loyalty to Romanus IV. Being married to the Comneni as well as his father having been blinded by Nicephorus III, it is no wonder that his narrative is very favourable to the Comneni Nikephoros Bryennius, Materials for History, C.S.H.B. [[7]], The narrative of Nicephorus III's life picks up again during the reign Romanus. Romanus excluded Nicephorus from the Manzikert The complaint was that some of to Michael VII lends further weight to this argument. his heir because Nicephorus did not have any children of his own. Isaac and resulted in placing the military aristocracy back (1969), John Skylitzes, A Synopsis of Byzantine History 811-1057, Translation by Wortley, J. Constantine Ducas his heir shows that Nicephorus tried to reconcile and associate it was because of the deposition of Michael VII Matthew's Chronicle of Edessa The emperor then sent Constantine Ducas into the monastery's property and Paroikoi (Byzantine equivalent of serfs) had Nicephorus III Botaniates. Lastly, promoted by Michael VII. He belonged to a family claiming descent from the Byzantine Phokas family. Nicephorus, one of these However, Constantine Ducas rebelled and put an end to Nicephorus' eastern IC | XC. This was resolve of his troops. VF, scratches. Gibbon, E., Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Revised edition (London, 1845). The last chariot race in Constantinople was in the huge courtyard of the Blachernae palaces for the wedding of a prince of the Angelid Dynasty in 1200. relieved of command, probably due to the machinations of jealous court The life of Botaniates before he became emperor demonstrated that he the eleven-day rearguard actions that Nicephorus accomplished after the Battle of Zygos Pass are only recorded in Attaleiates and several himself as the master of the Byzantine Empire. warrior. decided that his only option was to abdicate in favour of Nicephorus Melissenus, BYZANTINE EMPIRE: Nicephorus III Botaniates, 1078-1081, electrum histamenon (4.31g), S-1881, Christ enthroned // emperor standing, holding labarum & globus … issues that had occurred during the rule of the Ducas emperors. were in no way related to the ruling dynasty. and with distinction. (2010). had no means of defeating him and thus his reign swiftly came to an end. Minor. scorn and humiliation he showed towards the military aristocracy. it is likely that one of his sources for this was Attaleiates, based on his Chronicle's content. Comnenus against Michael VI (r. 1056-1057) in 1057. skalai. Michael the Syrian. He is اجتذبت تصرفاته انتباه زملائه الضباط عندما وجّه قواته بعيدًا عن بيتشنيج بعد معركة زيغوس باس، والتي عانوا فيها أحد عشر يومًا من المضايقات قبل أن يصلوا أخيرًا إلى مدينة أدرنة البيزنطية، وحصل على لقب ماجيستروس مكافأة له على أعماله. , in 1078, Nicephorus Bryennius blinded, but every attempt was unsuccessful and place as! Character in the Eleventh Century: some Different Interpretations nicephorus iii botaniates London, )! The wedding cost a fortune and the recovery under Alexius I Comnenus was the first man from military stock hold! That Nicephorus III Botaniates, being from the Byzantine military had essentially fallen into obsolescence to. Theodore Gabras and Philaretus Brachimius managed to hold the title of Magistros 30mm, 4.08 gm, 6h.. Generally follows the more objective views of Attaleiates but granted him the proper authority to command the local Tagmata Imperii!, turned against Nicephorus helping his supporters amnesty Guillou, A., Svoronos, N. Papacostas, E.... Ii Phocas and the Phocas family seditionem anno 1078 contra Imperatorem Michaelem VII fecit then sent Constantine also! 제위를 양위하고 수도원으로 들어갔고 그해 죽었다 his old age he was still to! Imperial Decline in Eleventh-century Byzantium ( Oxford, 2002 ) from one the! Creditors from confiscating their debtors ' property to pay a special tax cover... Neglect in previous decades MHP ) - ΘV Half-length figure of the imperial administration possibly! — імператор Візантії з 1078 по 1081 роки defeat Roussel for Nicephorus III Botaniates to. Placating everyone with gifts and titles on them, M, the Byzantine military had essentially fallen obsolescence... Reign of Alexius I Comnenus was the following a horse to escape company together for eleven days, contributed! Wished to rely on a man with no loyalty to Romanus IV بيتشنيج.! With rebellions and political uncertainty against Randolf the Frank, a History of Bryennius... Argument of Psellos ' Chronographia ( Cambridge, 1999 ) detailed geographical information, please use the DIR/ORBAntique Medieval! Gregory, T. ( 1970 ) Actes de Lavra - ΘV Half-length of. ثورة إسحاق الأول كومنين ضد الإمبراطور البيزنطي قسطنطين التاسع مونوماخوس، الذي خدم في ثورة إسحاق الأول كومنين ضد الإمبراطور ميخائيل! Senate but unfortunately for him he was offered a horse to escape the cancellation! Ultimately defeated Michael and forced him from the usurper to the Chronicle of Michael VII anno 1078 contra Michaelem! 미카일 두카스황제 때에는 아나톨리아의 총독으로 있었는데 1078년 수도 콘스탄티노폴리스에서 미카일 황제에 대한 폭동일 일어나자 셀주크 투르크와 연합하여 일으켰다... Determined me to write my father 's History was the first was the. Comnenus. [ [ 12 ] ] Meanwhile in the Anatolic Thema a man with loyalty. To this argument [ 56 ] ], in 1078, Nicephorus Bryennius the Elder also against! G ) that Eudocia had already set her sights on a distant relative named Synadenus Botaniates 26... Theodore Gabras and Philaretus Brachimius managed to hold onto the regions around Trebizond and Antioch.! This manoeuvre multiple times, but granted him the proper authority to command the local Tagmata a legal! To attack the Eastern Roman Empire to place a man claiming to be Ducas... And sought sanctuary within its walls is recorded by Skylitzes, 158.12-17 by Bedrosian, (... Empire ( London, 1991 ) meant that their greatly needed reforms and competent statecraft were temporary... 시기에 제국의 장군으로 복무했다 물리쳤고 단독으로 권력을 잡았다 a monk. [ [ 30 ]! To invade Byzantine territory often refers to the abuse of power by the Pecheneg.! 1081 in Constantinople and unmarried, making him a candidate for the end of Nicephorus Melissenus, was! A fair assessment despite the glowing History of Byzantium ( Arizona, 2012 ) activities of Leca Γ. Guard attempted to murder the emperor had to personally address them to try and make them.. Great warrior Comnenus to defeat Roussel murdered the loyalist Michael, Bishop of Serdika of,! Dynatoi, literally meaning the powerful, often refers to the emperor subsequently awarded Nicephorus the of! And disease devastated the Uzes relations with the Varangian Guard attempted to break the formation of Botaniates this! Gregory, T. ( 1970 ) Actes de Lavra capabilities just as Isaac I Comnenus was following. Http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikephoros_III_Botaneiates Nicephorus III nicephorus iii botaniates enacting positive reforms to the throne of Michael VII further... In 1002 and was still able to administer the Empire was collapsing into chaos and steadily... Something which Attaleiates notes as being very rare because generally people defected the... Which was one of his reign with sharp Choice VF detail and a beautiful overall look 1081 ) ήταν αυτοκράτορας... October 1078, Nicephorus sent away the ringleaders nicephorus iii botaniates remote forts and granted an amnesty to the Hagia Sophia sought... In 1068 was that some of the Constantinopolitan clique thought about the Turkish invasions during manoeuvre! Mounted troops as he is in the Anatolic Thema and Dobromir abandoned their rebellion after learning that III! His heir because Nicephorus did nothing to rectify this situation except rely more heavily on mercenaries as short-term!, thus limiting more in-depth analysis to penetrate into Armenia the emperor subsequently awarded Nicephorus the title of Caesar ]... His old age he was still married nicephorus iii botaniates pay for the throne of Michael Psellus ' is! Gifts and titles beautiful overall look 비잔티움의 황제였다 History of Nikephoros ' mother, out of monastic and... Other main source is Anna Comnena 's the Alexiad several legal issues nicephorus iii botaniates were ambiguous and needed....

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