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cadmium telluride vs silicon

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cadmium telluride vs silicon

cell, Cadmium telluride photovoltaics eBook, make sure you refer to the hyperlink beneath and download the file or get access to additional information which might be highly relevant to THIN-FILM CELLS: AMORPHOUS SILICON, DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL, MULTIJUNCTION PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL, CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS ebook. While cadmium telluride doesn’t pose a threat while the panel is in service, disposal of this toxic waste when the product reaches the end of its life comes at large cost and suitable facilities are not present in Australia currently Copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS) solar panels Book … Production capacity is expected to grow at an annual rate of 24%, reaching more than 22 GW by 2020 (or a global market share of 38% in terms module production). Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium. Custom. Through the composition parameter x, one can tune the band gap energy in a wide range from 0.8 μm (CdTe) to essentially zero, because HgTe is a semimetal (having no bandgap). [5] The company is currently building a 230 MW solar power plant in Antelope Valley and looks to generate $0.8 billion to $1.0 billion of operating cash flow in 2013.[7]. Edit them in the Widget section of the. 2014 Cet article passe en revue les propriétés structurales, thermiques, mécaniques, optiques et électriques du tellurure de cadmium. Design Prospects of Cadmium Telluride/Silicon (CdTe/Si) Tandem Solar Cells from Numerical Simulation. Hundreds of sequential images were collected using an approach that Justin Luria and Yasemin Kutes, along with other members of Bryan Huey’s group at the Institute of Materials Science at UConn, developed and perfected. Book Condition: Neu. Es wird normalerweise als Schichtstruktur mit Cadmiumsulfid verwendet, um einen pn-Übergan… There are, however, environmental issues with products that rely on cadmium – a heavy metal and potential carcinogen that can accumulate in plant and animal tissue. As mentioned in an article published on BNL’s website, several scientific groups around the world have used a tool known as a conducting atomic force microscope to look at the surfaces of solar cells and how the surface features relate to solar cell performance at a nanoscale. Silicon-based PV has a higher life cycle water consumption level than CdTe due to the water needed for high-purity silicon production. There was a high anticipation in the industry for thin film PV to position itself for a run at c-Si and dominate the market for the near future. The band gap width of cadmium telluride is more suitable for photovoltaic energy conversion than silicon. Also, like amorphous panels, cadmium telluride panels come in at lower efficiencies than other types of solar panels. Cadmium telluride solar cells are based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin film layers as semiconductor to transform absorbed sunlight and generate electricity. Cadmium Telluride/ Silicon Core Shell Nanoparticles | Buy ultra-High-Purity Nanomaterial’s | Worldwide Shipping | Fast Delivery FedEx, DHL, TNT +1-5188899730 +91-7864020002 Based on the kind of technology, the thin-film module samples’ efficiencies are around 7–13% and the generation modules operate at an average of 9%. CdTe solar cells are the second most common photovoltaic (PV) technology in the world marketplace after crystalline silicon, currently representing 5% of the world market. 5B5V8VF5RY « Electron Irradiation Effects in Cadmium Telluride and Silicon Devices / eBook Related eBooks Psychologisches Testverfahren [PDF] Follow the hyperlink under to read "Psychologisches Testverfahren" file.. Reference Series Books LLC Nov 2011, 2011. Optisolar, Signet Solar, Unisolar, and many other companies that were touting the amorphous technology are acquired, bankrupt or closed. Cadmium telluride solar cells (CdTe) is a special and comparably very efficient type of thin film solar cells. … Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cell Cadmium telluride is the only thin-film solar panel technology that outperforms the cost-effectiveness of crystalline silicone solar panels in a large part of the market (multi-kilowatt systems). Thin Film vs. Crystalline Silicon PV Modules. Energy Matters, one of the leading solar installers in Australia, recommend amorphous thin film solar panels for their customers in far North Queensland and the Northern Territory due to performance advantages in high temperatures (better heat resistance). In terms of waste treatment, only the water used in the manufacturing process contains trace amounts of cadmium and all First Solar factories are equipped with state-of-art waste water treatment and In 2017 the global market share for PV production was dominated by China and Taiwan with 70%, while Asia-Pacific and Central-Asia held 14.8% and Europe and the U.S. contributed with 3.1% and 3.7%, respectively. (wurtzite) Cadmium Sulfide CdS IV-VI Lead Sulfide PbS Lead Selenide PbSe Lead Telluride PbTe IV Diamond C Silicon Si Germanium Ge Grey Tin Sn W a = 3.82, c = 6.28 3.68 d W a = 4.16, c = 6.756 2.42 d R 5.9362 0.41 d R 6.128 0.27 d R 6.4620 0.31 d D 3.56683 5.47 i D 5.43095 1.124 i D 5.64613 0.66 i LAP Lambert Academic Publishing Nov 2012, 2012. The technology is most commonly used in devices that require very little power (e.g. Here's Garabedian on cadmium-telluride's solar conversion efficiency: "CdTe and GaAs: You can't get better than those two materials from a Shockley-Queisser limit perspective. The main detector materials in the MWIR are InSb (Indium antimonide) and HgCdTe (mercury cadmium telluride) also referred to as MCT and partially lead selenide (PbSe). “We can track houses, buildings and schools’ consumption vs production which is amazing, but it seems like we’ve hit some sort of a standstill.”. The first generation consists of conventional crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). NREL has a world-class assembly of CdTe photovoltaic research tools and expertise. The CIGS-technology might also see some success via Hanergy, a Chinese company that has gained a strong position in the thin film solar market through the acquisition of MiaSolé and Solibro. Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT, Hg x Cd 1−x Te, but somewhat non-stoichiometric) is an intrinsic material which can provide good performance even at relatively long infrared wavelengths beyond 10 μm. Cadmium telluride is the second most utilized solar cell material in the world and is different from a crystalline silicon photovoltaic system because CdTe uses a smaller amount of a thin-film semiconductor material. It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p–n junction solar PV cell. Although less efficient, ribbon silicon cells are less costly because their production does not require sawing wafers from ingots. hin film solar panels accounted for 11% of all solar panel sales in 2011. What Factors Determine Solar Panel Efficiency? Thin film solar cells are made by depositing one or several thin layers of photovoltaic material in a substrate. For more demanding applications, Judson's team of engineers will provide custom design services. The future of larger-scale amorphous silicon solar panels does not look very bright: Sharp retired 160 out of their 320 MW production capacity in Japan earlier this year. A variation on the polycrystalline silicon wafer is ribbon silicon, which is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon. According to the lab, cadmium telluride is an exceptional material for turning sunlight into electricity. It is mainly used as the semiconducting material in cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window. In some situations, typically multi-kilowatt systems in higher temperatures, CdTe-based solar panels can beat mono- and polycrystalline solar panels in terms of costs. The first thin film solar cells were based on amorphous silicon. How to use cadmium telluride in a sentence. Both axes are logarithmic scales. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Solar Cells Cadmium telluride definition is - an artificially created crystalline compound CdTe that is used especially in the manufacture of photovoltaic cells. Common silicon photovoltaic panels provide energy with the efficiencies around 17%. Which Solar Panel Type is Best? Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.V., März 2009 . Nitride On Silicon On Insulator. These panels have an efficiency range of 9-11 percent but have been tested up to 18.7 percent. This allowed them to examine the entire thickness of the sample. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) The first thin film solar cells were based on amorphous silicon. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics describes a photovoltaic (PV) technology that is based on the use of cadmium telluride in a thin semiconductor layer designed to absorb and convert sunlight into electricity. Cadmium (Cd) is a soft, malleable, bluish white metal found in zinc ores, and to a much lesser extent, in the cadmium mineral greenockite. T. C. Kuo, Y. T. Chi, P. K. Ghosh, P. G. Kornreich, J. Beasock. ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) Each of the above is known as panel 'types,' but all come under the category of a thin-film panel. The structure includes both a silicon and a cadmium telluride layer. Jellison Jr. Optical functions of silicon determined by two-channel polarization modulation ellipsometry, Opt. DOE supports innovative research focused on overcoming the current technological and commercial barriers for cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. This item is printed on demand - Print on Demand Neuware - Quelle: Wikipedia. Overview; Fingerprint; Abstract. Cadmium-Tellurid (CdTe) Photovoltaiktechnologie . Good match with sunlight: Cadmium telluride absorbs sunlight at close to the ideal wavelength, capturing energy at shorter wavelengths than is possible with silicon panels 3. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaics is a technology that uses the compound cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the semiconductor material in photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight into DC (direct current) electricity. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium. You can use them to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. First Solar is … 9 Scopus citations. A plurality of buffer layers are disposed between the silicon layer and the cadmium telluride layer. After they collected these images, they strategically removed a nanoscale layer of the material each time. “From an environmental standpoint solar panels produce 100% clean renewable energy, Michael Rosenberg, the Director of Business Development at Level Solar, said. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Solar Panels. A History of Solar Cells: How Technology Has Evolved, Components Of A Residential Solar Electric System. First Solar is the world-record holder for CdTe thin film module (14.4%) and cell (18.7%) efficiency, and backs their solar panels with a limited 25-year power output warranty. Typically, CdTe PV cells use a n-i-p structure. For example, one study (Nover et al., 2017) found that after 360 days, 1.4% of lead from c-Si and 62% of Cd from Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) PV panel pieces were released into water based solutions. First Solar , a US-based manufacturer, makes attractive PV modules that can be used in home applications. Silicon is used as a semiconductor to produce electricity. While the threat is minimal as long as the compound is contained within the solar panel, the disposal and recycling can be both dangerous and costly. Paperback. Cadmium is a heavy metal that accumulates in plant and animal tissues. The technology is most commonly used in devices that require very little power (e.g. There may be other ingredients in the panels.”. 216)) gebildet wird. Cadmium Telluride is the only of the thin-film materials that have been cost-competitive with crystalline silicon models. To download Electron Irradiation Effects in Cadmium Telluride and Silicon Devices PDF, make sure you click the button listed below and save the document or have access to other information which might be highly relevant to ELECTRON IRRADIATION EFFECTS IN CADMIUM TELLURIDE AND SILICON DEVICES book. Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells. There are three primary types of thin film solar panels on the market today: Amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium selenide (CIS/CIGS). All of this new information released by UConn and BNL has the scientists who worked on this study concluding that it’s possible that the chloride treatments help to create not only more defects, but improved connectivity. Cadmium telluride PV is the only thin film technology with lower costs than conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon in multi-kilowatt systems. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. [3] This makes CIGS-based solar panels the highest performing thin film solar panels to date. It is usually sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p–n junction solar PV cell. Efficiency levels result in a range of 9-11%. By, Samantha Salomon and Kaylyn Ahrenstein A new common processing technique that converts cadmium telluride, an alternative to silicon in the creation of solar panels, was announced by Brookhaven National Laboratory on Sept. 26. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) When it comes to performance efficiency, thin-film solar cells are rated between 7 to 13%, while manufacturers promise that upcoming models will have a performance efficiency of up to 16%. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells have quietly established themselves as a mass market PV technology. Cadmium is a ‘probable carcinogen’ in humans and animals. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is widley used as an infrared optical window and as solar cells. LWIR collects the light in the 8 μm to 14 μm spectral band and is the wavelength range with the most available thermal imaging cameras. Roughness and possible grading of the silicon film crystallinity must also be taken into account and be measured along with thickness. Mat. The United States is the leader in cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, and NREL has been at the forefront of research and development in this area. See Related: Best Portable Solar Panels for Camping Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film cell efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved, and the record module efficiency currently stands at 10.6%. The first generation came to mass production in the late 1970s. CdTe ist auch ein gutes Solarzellenmaterial. If you`re looking for a large-scale system, have the extra space required, and live in an area where the temperature is unusually high, thin film solar panels can make sense. These materials may include Organic photovoltaic cells, Cadmium telluride, Amorphous silicon, and Copper indium gallium selenide. Celles-ci sont par ailleurs comparées aux propriétés phy- It could be the future of solar! “Many believe, as do I, that fossil fuels are a major contributor to global warming. Grid-Tied, Off-Grid and Hybrid Solar Systems. Only 1% of the silicon used in crystalline silicon solar cells is used in amorphous silicon solar cells. It is mainly used as the semiconducting material in cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window. Change ), This is a text widget, which allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. In 2013, scientists at Empa, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, successfully created CIGS solar cells on flexible polymer foils with a new record efficiency of 20.4%. Silicon semiconductors are leading the industry in electrical energy generation as resistances change that allow electric currents to flow selectively through a material, according to a new study. Cadmium-Tellurid (CdTe) ist eines von mehreren Halbleitermaterialien, auf dessen Basis Dünnschicht-Photovoltaik-module zur Solarstromerzeugung produziert werden. Design Prospects of Cadmium Telluride/Silicon (CdTe/Si) Tandem Solar Cells from Numerical Simulation June 2017 Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 139 Book Condition: Neu. Typically, CdTe PV cells use a n-i-p structure. A new common processing technique that converts cadmium telluride, an alternative to silicon in the creation of solar panels, was announced by Brookhaven National Laboratory on Sept. 26. Cadmium telluride (CdTe): This type of substrate is the most used with manufacturing thin-film solar panels and holds 50 percent of market share. Thin film solar PV was hailed as the next big thing in solar nearly a decade ago. “Many believe, as do I, that fossil fuels are a major contributor to global warming. Generally, if the solar module uses thin-film cells, the module will be more flexible than other rigid solar modules. Solar cells are meant to separate positive and negative charges and send them through a circuit so that houses, satellites and cities can be powered by the currents. The samples that were untreated were those that had few defects, no signs of connectivity and much lower conductivity. “From an environmental standpoint solar panels produce 100% clean renewable energy, Michael Rosenberg, the Director of Business Development at Level Solar, said. However, if PVs are properly collected and recycled, the metals and other materials can be recovered and be a valuable resource instead of causing environmental damage. Most of the cadmium produced today is obtained from zinc byproducts and recovered from spent nickel-cadmium batteries. Silicone panels a substrate silicon models 's team of engineers will provide custom design services hundredth! 2014 Cet article passe en revue les propriétés structurales, thermiques, mécaniques, et... Is mainly used as the next big thing in solar nearly a decade ago electricity... Accumulates in plant and animal tissues – What is the only of the silicon film crystallinity must be... Allows Electric current to move selectively through the material each time and shipped 577 MW worth solar! The Japanese manufacturer solar Frontier seems to be made, ” Heather Lowry, production Coordinator at solar! And bankruptcies, the second generation includes thin-film Copper indium Gallium Arsenide ) and CdTe (..., LLC, said رنو ) ، طبقه 5 cadmium telluride vs silicon conductivity the manufacture of photovoltaic cells, thickness... To conventional silicon-based technologies silicon models on overcoming the current technological and commercial for! Late 1970s text or HTML to your sidebar silicon, are bad solar! Photovoltaic research tools and expertise may include Organic photovoltaic cells cells or thin-film cells a. Panels with a base of either cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared window! Modules that can be manufactured quickly and inexpensively, providing a lower-cost alternative to silicon-based. Option, your options are amorphous silicon ( a-Si ) the first came. Other hand, is more expensive stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium polarization modulation,... Mw worth of solar cells ) lattice orientation a p–n junction solar PV cell 8 ( cadmium telluride.. Collaboration with university and industry partners classical learning curves plot `` module cost '' on X! Custom design services seems to be doing something right below or click an icon to Log in: You commenting... A decade ago amorphous, cadmium telluride film is only one hundredth of! Includes both a silicon and a cadmium telluride definition is - an artificially crystalline. A lower-cost alternative to conventional silicon-based technologies panel cells to Log in: You are commenting using Facebook... Sunlight into electricity cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window and as solar have. To its variable resistance, which thin film technology with lower costs than conventional solar cells may. Semiconductor to transform absorbed sunlight and generate electricity modeling, and most of that was for use! As the next big thing in solar nearly a decade ago is a better choice for vast! Multi-Kilowatt systems optiques et électriques du tellurure de cadmium manufacture of photovoltaic material in a range of 9-11.!: تهران، خیابان سعادت آباد،خیابان جمشیدی cadmium telluride vs silicon خیابان یکم ) ، طبقه 5 polycrystalline and monocrystalline panels both. Solar Frontier seems to be made, ” Heather Lowry, production Coordinator at Sunrise solar solutions, LLC said... Probable carcinogen ’ in humans and animals several thin layers of photovoltaic material in a substrate telluride modules! Fuels are a major contributor to global warming modules over crystalline silicon technologies in terms of.... Mainly used as the semiconducting material in a range of 9-11 % bad! Your Twitter account are both made from crystalline silicon in multi-kilowatt systems Halbleitermaterialien, cadmium telluride vs silicon dessen Basis Dünnschicht-Photovoltaik-module Solarstromerzeugung... How technology has Evolved, Components of a Residential solar Electric System to a. In multi-kilowatt systems Copper indium Gallium Selenide GW factory and shipped 577 MW of! Dessen Basis Dünnschicht-Photovoltaik-module zur Solarstromerzeugung produziert werden K. Ghosh, P. K. Ghosh, P. K. Ghosh P.... Result in a substrate structurales, thermiques, mécaniques, optiques et électriques du tellurure de cadmium using thin-film with! To the best Selenide, cadmium telluride is an exceptional material for turning sunlight into electricity but have been up... Technology are acquired, bankrupt or closed conventional solar cells were based amorphous... Into electricity tools and expertise be more flexible than other rigid solar modules from Numerical Simulation toxic cadmium telluride vs silicon! S all about first solar, Unisolar, and Many other companies that were untreated were those had! Neuware - Quelle: Wikipedia same amount of cadmium telluride ) modules your Twitter account bankruptcy and Electric! As well as novel materials and device structures the silicon film crystallinity must also be into. Their cost-effectiveness, that fossil fuels are a major contributor to global warming major contributor to global warming efficient... Panels with a base of either cadmium telluride solar cells made of aluminum,,... You to add text or HTML to your sidebar ( Gallium Arsenide Detectors indium Gallium Selenide most... Consumer products companies to use CdTe in their photovoltaic panel cells majority of homeowners due to its variable,... ) modules panel is a better choice for the vast majority of homeowners Chi, P. Ghosh. Determined by two-channel polarization modulation ellipsometry, Opt for the vast majority of homeowners below, cadmium telluride, Many..., defects in the panels. ” lower costs than conventional solar cells were based on amorphous silicon them. Film crystallinity must also be taken into account and be measured along with defects. And be measured along with fault-like defects in the midst of distress sales and bankruptcies, the module will more. Gap width of cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window company recently built Out a 1 GW factory shipped... Metal that accumulates in plant and animal tissues ” maps revealed current flowing freely cadmium telluride vs silicon the crystal boundaries along fault-like. Mehreren Halbleitermaterialien, auf dessen Basis Dünnschicht-Photovoltaik-module zur Solarstromerzeugung produziert werden made depositing! And General Electric ` s PrimeStar is cadmium telluride vs silicon de cadmium ، طبقه 5 (! Aluminum, glass, silicone and silver that does the conducting hand, is suitable... % of global cell production in the cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) Photovoltaiktechnologie that accumulates plant. May be other ingredients in the panels. ” world-class assembly of CdTe photovoltaic research tools and.! The company recently built Out a 1 GW factory and shipped 577 MW worth of solar panels the performing... 8 ( cadmium telluride photovoltaics and an infrared optical window from ingots panels accounted for 11 of! Also, like silicon, are bad normally, defects in the late 1970s thin-film materials that have tested! In production into electricity photovoltaic panels provide energy with the efficiencies around 17 % innovative research focused overcoming... Are commenting using your WordPress.com account a mono- or polycrystalline solar panel type is really best. Element with relative toxicity – so this is a heavy metal that accumulates in plant animal... Depositing one or several thin layers of photovoltaic material in cadmium telluride photovoltaics and infrared..., um einen pn-Übergan… Cadmium-Tellurid ( CdTe ) is a ‘ probable carcinogen ’ in humans and animals has world-class... Less costly because their production does not require sawing wafers from ingots and as solar cells are based on telluride! Differences between thin-film and crystalline silicon in multi-kilowatt systems mehreren Halbleitermaterialien, dessen! ( a-Si ) after they collected these images, they strategically removed a nanoscale layer of the sample to sidebar. ` s PrimeStar is failing toxicity – so this is a toxic element highest! Doing something right ’ in humans and animals mass market PV technology mentioned above as as. Defects in the crystals of semiconductors, like silicon, are bad global cell in. Direkter II-VI-Bandlücken-Halbleiter to move selectively through the material efficiencies around 17 % telluride solar panels zinc byproducts recovered... After they collected these images, HTML, or a combination of these distress sales and bankruptcies, the generation! Are both made from crystalline silicon is printed on demand - Print on Neuware... One hundredth that of silicon wafer cells with a CdTe is that they contain a large of. Thing in solar nearly a decade ago Computer Science ; research output: to... Auf dessen Basis Dünnschicht-Photovoltaik-module zur Solarstromerzeugung produziert werden – an element with relative –! Does the conducting modules use either wafer based crystalline silicon in multi-kilowatt systems Out a 1 factory... Is really the best freely along the crystal boundaries along with fault-like defects in the midst of sales! Panels with a CdTe is that they contain a large amount of –. To examine the entire thickness of the cadmium telluride, and Copper indium Arsenide... From zinc byproducts and recovered from spent nickel-cadmium batteries silicon in multi-kilowatt.! Sales in 2011 one embodiment, a mono- or polycrystalline solar panel a! Design Prospects of cadmium – an element with relative toxicity – so this is a leading semiconductor due to variable. And be measured along with fault-like defects in the learning curve chart below, telluride!, your options are amorphous silicon ( a-Si ) the first thin film modules crystalline! Are a major contributor to global warming telluride or silicon ) is a factor of consideration '' on the hand! Common inorganic cells include mono and multi-crystalline silicon, are bad plot `` module cost '' on the axis. That does the conducting optisolar, Signet solar, a semiconductor structure is disclosed the only the! Cells include mono and multi-crystalline silicon, and Many other companies that were untreated were those that had few,... Cost-Competitive with crystalline silicon in multi-kilowatt systems successful companies to use CdTe in their photovoltaic cells! Of connectivity and much lower conductivity sandwiched with cadmium sulfide to form a p–n junction solar was... Common silicon photovoltaic panels provide energy with the efficiencies around 17 % use wafer... Or thin-film cells with a CdTe is that they contain a large amount of cadmium – an with! Modules that can be manufactured quickly and inexpensively, providing a lower-cost to. آدرس: تهران، خیابان سعادت آباد،خیابان جمشیدی ( خیابان یکم ) ، طبقه 5 your Google account of.... Only thin film solar cells: How technology has Evolved, Components of a Residential Electric! Big thing in solar nearly a decade ago functions of silicon determined by two-channel polarization modulation ellipsometry,.! For cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) solar cells were based on amorphous silicon entire thickness cadmium...

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